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"The Klein sonata and the Ullmann sonata are probably the two most sophisticated works on the program," Orgel said. "Klein's is perhaps the most abstract of the pieces, and the most modernistic for the time. It's very dissonant and dense, but obviously very strong emotionally.

"In giving this paper to Haas, Gideon urged, almost commanded, him to compose again," Kleinova wrote. "He spoke of artistic responsibility to oneself, one's muse, and to all of us in the ghetto."

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Berman (1899 1944) wasn't primarily a composer, but a singer. Born in South Bohemia, he had already established a career on the Prague stage as a bass when he was transported to Terezin in 1943. He quickly became part of musical life there. In fact, Ullmann wrote "The Emperor of Atlantis" for Berman.

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On Oct. 16, 1944, Ullmann was one of the last transports to Auschwitz, where he was sent directly to the gas chambers.

Composed in 1943, Klein's Sonata for piano is a work of passion and turbulence.

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On Sept. 8, 1942, Ullmann was deported to Terezin, which he referred to as "an education of form." Over the next two years, he composed more than two dozen works many of which are performed today.

"Music from the Holocaust" features music for solo piano by Viktor Ullmann, Pavel Haas, Gideon Klein and Karel Berman, and was released on Phoenix USA.

It's hard to imagine a Nazi concentration camp as a center of artistic creativity, but one of them, Terezin, or Theresienstadt in German, proved to be just that, spawning music that is haunting to this day. For the past several years, Shelburne pianist Paul Orgel has been researching and performing works by four composers who were prisoners at Nike Gilet the Czech camp. This year, he recorded the program, and the CD was released in September.

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"Everyone reads into it the situation in which it was written in, the prison camp," Orgel said.

Ullmann remains the most famous of the four composers and is currently enjoying a revival. (Several years ago, Robert De Cormier and the Vermont Symphony Orchestra and Chorus toured the state with his opera, "Emperor of Atlantis," later releasing a commercial recording of it.) Born in Silesia, Ullmann studied in Vienna with 12 tone composer Arnold Schoenberg. He settled in Prague, where he was a freelance musician, working for Czechoslovak Radio, writing reviews and studying composition at the Prague Conservatory of Music.

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"I'd say this piece is purely personal and, in a way, slightly nave, but with great integrity," Orgel said.

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"I guess it speaks for itself when you think of someone imprisoned," Orgel said.

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However, Ullmann (1898 1944) wrote in an essay: "It must be emphasized that Theresienstadt has served to enhance, not to impede, my musical activities, that by no means did we sit weeping on the banks of the waters of Babylon, and that our endeavor with respect to Art was commensurate with our will to live."

Orgel says, "The piece is kind of jazzy and show offy in a way. It's quite virtuosic."

Haas himself can be seen in the 1944 propaganda film, "The Fhrer Builds the Jews a City." In October 1944, shortly after the film was made, Haas was transported to Auschwitz, where he was immediately sent to the gas chambers.

Ullmann is represented on the album by Piano Sonata No. 7, his last, written in the camp and dedicated to his children.

Berman only composed only two works in his lifetime, a song cycle and this suite for piano, first titled "Terezin," which he later changed to "Reminiscences," describing his prison camp experience.

"When Pavel Haas was deported to Terezin, he would not have a thing to do with music in the ghetto," wrote Eliska Kleinova, composer Gideon Klein's sister. "He was miserable. His health was bad. He missed his wife and daughter terribly. During the Nazi occupation, he and his wife divorced. His wife was not Jewish. The divorce saved the wife and child from the transports. All this was too much for Haas."

Klein had great respect for Haas and presented him with paper a very difficult commodity to come by in the camp with lines in staves like music manuscript paper.

´╗┐Shelburne pianist brings music of the Holocaust to compact disc

Although most who entered its gates were to die at the hands of the Nazis, Terezin was known as a "paradise ghetto." There, the Nazis not only tolerated artistic activity, they encouraged it. Among the large number of artists and intellectuals in the camp, an active music scene proliferated. Prisoners and their captors were treated to concerts ranging from solo recitals to chamber music to full scale productions of Mozart operas and Verdi's Requiem. Whether the Nazis encouraged the performances to retain order or because they wanted to hear the music themselves remains in question.

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a way," Orgel said. "For me it comes out of Czech music that's more tonal, more folk oriented. Each movement gives you, as it were, a chapter in his life, starting with his early days, and his Holocaust experiences, and then coming out of it.

Jews to create music and then executing them," Orgel said. "The thing is that music had importance in German culture, like it or not. It meant something to the Germans, and to the Jews."

Klein (1919 1945) was perhaps the most promising of the composers. Born in Moravia, he was a brilliant pianist and emerged as a composer at 15. He was an active concert pianist when he was arrested and deported to Terezin on Dec. 4, 1941.

time he was 15, he had composed an overture, songs and solo piano works. He has been described as Czech composer Leos Janacek's most talented disciple. Haas was deported to Terezin on Dec. 2, 1941, where he immediately became severely depressed.

"I felt that the best way to honor these composers was to play the music and leave it there," Orgel explained.

Concert life at Terezin was under the jurisdiction of the Freizeitgestaltung, or Committee for Leisure Time. Originally surreptitious, these activities came to be sanctioned by the Nazis. Still, the act of composition is perhaps surprising, given the oppressive conditions.

"It has a lot of allusions," Orgel said. "It can be seen as autobiographical and incorporates a Hebrew folk song and a set of variations on it at the end.

In October 1944, Klein was one of the last deported to Auschwitz, where he escaped the gas chambers only to be sent to the coal mines. There has been no trace of him since.

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Haas returned to composition, but wrote only a handful of works. His Suite for Piano, Opus 13, on this album, was written in 1935, before the Holocaust. Its style reflects his time with Janacek.

Haas (1899 1944) was born in Brno and by the Nike Socks

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